Last week I wrote about digital image correlation as a method for measuring surface strain and displacement fields. The simplicity and modest cost of the equipment required combined with the quality and quantity of the results is revolutionizing the field of experimental mechanics. It also has the potential to do the same in computational mechanics by enabling more comprehensive validation of models and thus enhancing the credibility and confidence in engineering simulations. I have written and lectured on this topic many times, see for instance my post of September 17th, 2012 entitled ‘Model credibility’ or http://sdj.sagepub.com/content/48/1.toc
At the moment, I am chair of a CEN workshop WS71 that is developing a precursor to a standard on validation of computational solid mechanics models. To inform our deliberations, we have organised an Inter-Laboratory Study (ILS) to allow people to try out the proposed validation protocol and give us feedback. If you would like to have a go then download the information pack. You don’t need to do any experiments or modelling, just try the validation procedure with some of the data sets provided. The more engineers that participate in the ILS then the better that the final CEN document is likely to be; so if you know someone who might be interested then forward this blog to them or just send them the link.
Displacement field measured using digital image correlation for a metal wedge indenting a rubber block
CEN WS71: http://www.cen.eu/cen/Sectors/TechnicalCommitteesWorkshops/Workshops/Pages/WS71VANESSA.aspx
EU FP7 project VANESSA: www.engineeringvalidation.org
For information on the data field shown to the right see: http://sdj.sagepub.com/content/49/2/112.abstract
Engineers are increasingly using digital photographs with 256 shades of grey to measure displacement of structural components. The technique is known as Digital Image Correlation and is the most common way to measure the deformation of engineering structures and components in a laboratory, and increasingly in the field. DIC provides maps of the displacement of the component surface from which the strain field can be calculated and which in turn allows engineers to assess the behaviour and likely failure modes of the component. DIC is beginning to revolutionise the way in which we validate computational mechanics models.
DIC involves capturing ‘before’ and ‘after’ images of the component surface while load is applied. If the surface has a random pattern, which is often created by spray-painting black speckles onto a white background, then it is possible to track the movement of the pattern as the surface moves and deforms. The images are usually recorded as intensity maps defined by 256 shades of grey or grey levels from white through to black. A mathematical signature is assigned to facets or sub-images of the intensity map in the ‘before’ image and a correlation algorithm uses the signature to recognise the facet in the ‘after’ image. The positions of the centre of the facet in the ‘before’ and ‘after’ images indicates the displacement of the corresponding area of the component surface. Two cameras can be used to provide stereoscopic vision and information on displacements in all directions.
The picture shows a car bonnet or hood panel in a test frame in a laboratory prior to an impact test with a random speckle pattern on the surface to allow DIC to be performed using high-speed cameras. For more details see: Burguete et al , 2013, J. Strain Analysis, doi:10.1177/0309324713498074 at http://sdj.sagepub.com/content/early/2013/09/19/0309324713498074.full.pdf+html
For detailed explanations of DIC try the monograph by Professor Mike Sutton and his colleagues [link.springer.com/content/pdf/bfm%3A978-0-387-78747-3%2F1.pdf] or the chapter on DIC in Optical Methods for Solid Mechanics by Pramod Rastogi and Erwin Hack [http://eu.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-3527411119.html].
For some applications see the special issue on DIC of the Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design [http://sdj.sagepub.com/content/43/8.toc].